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Earth with worms
Natural HistoryImmunity
The dawn of life on earth

Life has evolved on earth over hundreds of millions of years. From the earliest molecules capable of self replication to virus to bacteria, the complexity of the structures has increased, culminating in the form of mankind. During this process some mechanisms have been conserved i.e. RNA/DNA machinery.

Also can be detected, in advanced species, the remnants of primitive bacteria to bacteria chemical [quorum sensing] communication. This 'talk' controls and regulates bacterial colony growth and reproduction. In higher life forms, such as insects and humans, this has evolved into an antimicrobial peptide defense against pathogens or as toxins against predators as in scorpion tail venom, or, as in frog skins.

Species differ in their pathogen susceptibility and in the amino acid structure of the Anti Microbial Peptides that they produce.

Habitat niches and species specialisation

As life evolves and natural genetic mutation leads to species diversification, then life forms find niches for survival and exploitation. Living on a planet of limited resources, matter is regenerated within an ecological community and a mutual dependence develops as species evolve their specific roles.



Symbiosis in action

This co-dependence is demonstrated at many levels: the mutually benefical exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between plants and animals. Gut probiotic bacteria are provided with a safe habitat in which to grow, whilst providing their hosts with enzymatic pathways for food degradation and the supply of essential nutrients for growth for survival. Birds eat parasites living on the hides of giraffes whilst enjoying protection from predators.

Cycle of Life
Dung Beetle

Life forms have co-evolved a strategy for growth, death and regeneration. Death may be due to natural causes or due to susceptibility to pathogenic disease. Plants and animals that have succumbed to pathogenic challenge, and infected animal waste, may be regenerated by species that have developed immune resistance to the infection and in so doing they play the role of natural biological sanatisers, ensuring biomass is safely recycled within the ecosystem, with pathogens removed.


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